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1 Things That Benefit the Dead Part 2 on Нед 07 Aвг 2011, 5:51 pm

muharem fazli

Things That Benefit the Dead Part 2

Claims for Ijmaa'

It should be noted that there are claims for Ijmaa' (consensus) that a dead person benefits from the good deeds, including Qur'aanic recitation,done on his behalf by other people. Whereas these claims have been demonstrated to be invalid in the above discussion, they further fall under the following two considerations:

1. It has been demonstrated by staunch scholars, such as Ibn Hazm (in Usul ul-Ahkaam), ash-Shawkwaani (in Irshaad ul-Fuhul), and 'Abd ul-Wahhab Khallaaf (in Usul ul-Fiqh), that it is not possible to justify Ijmaa' for other than the most obvious matters in Islaam. Imaam Ahmed has indicated this in his famous refutation against those who claim Ijmaa'.

2. I have investigated many of the cases for which there have been claims of ijmaa' and found that there is an obvious difference of opinion concerning them.

I (Sheikh al-Albaanee) even found (in some cases) that the opinion of the majority of scholars is contrary to the claimed ijmaa'!" (Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 219).

A Dangerous Belief

The danger of holding a wrong belief in regard to this issue has been clarified and emphasized by al-Albaanee: "We do not doubt this wrong belief's evil effects upon one who adopts it. He would rely upon others for acquiring rewards and high ranks (in the hereafter), because he knows that the Muslims dedicate hundreds of good deeds everyday to all of the living and the dead Muslims, and he is one of them; that would then relieve him from having to work hard when others are striving on his behalf!...A more dangerous saying is that it is permissible to perform Hajj on behalf of others,even if there is no valid excuse preventing them from performing it by themselves. This causes many of the wealthy people to drop hajj or other obligations, giving themselves the excuse, "They will perform hajj on my behalf after my death!.. There are many other similar opinions that clearly have evil effects on the (Muslim) societies. It is imperative for the scholars who wish to reform (the societies) to reject such opinions, because they conflict with the texts, as well as the spirit of the Shari'ah..As for the person who rejects the opinions described above,it is inconceivable that he would ever rely on other people in doing deeds and acquiring rewards.He realizes that only his own deeds can save him,and he is rewarded in accordance with what he himself earns.It is then incumbent that he strives t the utmost to leave behind him good traces which will result in good rewards for him even in the loneliness of his grave-instead of those imaginary good deeds."

(Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz,222-223).


Fasting the Vowed Days

Aa'ishah rahimahullaah reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:

"Whoever dies while he has a fasting to fulfill (as a vow),his wali' (kin/guardian) should fast for him." (al-Bukhaaree,Muslim and others).
Ibn Abbas rahimahullaah reported that a woman was travelling in the sea, and she vowed that if Allaah saved her she would fast for one month. Allaah saved her,but she died before fulfilling her vow. Her daughter came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and mentioned this to him. He asked "Had she owed money as debt, wouldn't you have paid it on her behalf?" She replied, "Yes". He said: "Allaah's debt is more worthy of being fulfilled. So fulfill (the vow) for your mother." (al-Bukhaaree,Muslim and others).

Sa'd bin 'Ubaadah reported that he told Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, "My mother has died and she had an unfulfilled vow". He instructed him: "Fulfill it for her." (al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others).

These hadiths clearly indicate that it is recommended for a deceased's wali to fulfill his vows of fasting. Fasting the Missed Days of Ramadhaan Some scholars recommended, in addition to this, fasting the days of Ramadhaan that the deceased had missed. However, the correct position in this regard is expressed by Imaam Ahmad rahimahullaah, "One may not fast for a dead person except in the case of a vow." (al-Masaa'il, 96 by Abu Dawud).

This position is confirmed by the understanding of two of the sahabah:

'Aaishah rahimahullaah and Ibn'Abbas rahimahullaah.'Amrah reported that her mother died
without making up her missed days of Ramadhaan.She asked 'Aaishah rahimahullaah,
"Should I make that up on her behalf?".She replied: "No! Rather give sadaqah to the needy in the amount of a half saa' (of grains or food) for every missed day."

(at-Tahawi,Ibn Hazm, verified to be sahih by al-Albaanee,Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz,215).

Sa'id ibn Jubayr rahimahullaah reported that Ibn 'Abbas rahimahullaah said: "If a man gets sick in Ramadhan and then dies without fasting,food should be given on his behalf - without a need to make up for the fasting.But if he had made a vow (to fast), his wali' should fast for him." (Abu Dawud, Ibn Hazm,verified sahih by al-Albaanee,Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz,215).

Commenting on this, al-Albaanee says:"This understanding is adopted by the Mother of the Believers, as well as Ibn 'Abbas, the great scholar of the Ummah,and is further held by the Imam of Sunnah,Ahmad ibn Hanbal. It is the most moderate and appropriate opinion in this regard; and it fulfills all of the relevant hadiths,without rejected any of them,especially the first, which the Mother of the Believers rahimahullaah did not find applicable to the fasting of Ramadhan. She is the reporter of the hadith, and it is established that a narrator of a hadith is more knowledgeable about the meaning of what he reports,especially when his understanding agrees with the rules and foundations of the Shari'aah,as is the case here." (Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 215-216).

And Ibn ul-Qayyim rahimahullaah comments on Aaishah's above hadith by saying:
"One group (of scholars) generaln and enable other people to follow it clean and pure, as it was revealed izes this,and says that both the vowed and missed obligatory fasting should be made up for the deceased. Another group rejects this and says that no fasting may be made up for him. A third group is more specific in saying that only the vowed fasting, but not the obligatory fasting,should be for his brother,the appointed angel says,"Amin;and the same be given to you." (Muslim and others).

As has been previously demonstrated (p.66) Standing guard in the way of Allah
subhanahu wa ta'ala benefits a person after his death. Fudaalah ibn 'Ubayd and 'Uqbah
'Aamir rahimahullaah reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The deeds of a dead person are sealed (at the time of death) except the one who stands guard i the way of Allaah; his good deeds continue to increase until the Day of Resurrection, and he is protected from the trial of the grave." (Ahmad,Abu Dawud,at-Tirmidhi, and others,verified sahih by al-Albaanee in Sahih ul-Jami' no. 4562).

Calling to a forgotten Sunnah or fighting an established bid'ah are amongs the most important charitable deeds that a person can do during his lifetime.They help revive Allaah's deen to Muhammad sallallaahu'alayhi wa sallam. Jareer bin'Abdullah rahimahullaah reported that they (the companions) were with Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam in the middle of the day when a group of people arrived (from outside al-Madinah) to see him. They were barefoot,(almost) naked,wearing only woolen lined cloth pieces or cloaks,armed with swords,wearing no izaars or anything else beside that. Most or all of them were from (the tribe of) Mudar. The face of Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam changed (reflecting sadness) when he noticed their extreme poverty.

He went in (to his house), then he came out. He commanded Bilaal to give adhaan,
prayed dhuhr,then mounted a small minbar.He gave a khutbah in which he praised and thanked Allaah,and then said: "After this, (I say that) Allaah has revealed in His book:

"O people! Revere your lord who has created you from one soul,and created from it its mate, and from these two spread forth multitudes of men and women;and fear Allaah through whom you demand [your mutual rights], and [revere the ties of] the wombs. Indeed Allaah is ever watchful over you." (4:1)."

And He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam says:"O you who believe! Revere Allaah,and let every person look to what he has sent forth for the morrow;and revere Allaah.Allaah is well Aware of what you do! And be not like those who forget (disobey)Allaah,and He caused them to forget themselves.Those are the disobedient."Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of Jannah. It is the dwellers of Jannah that will be successful." (59:18-20). Spend (in Allaah's way) before you are prevented from spending. Let a man spend of his dinars, dirhams,clothes,measure of wheat,barley or dates."Until he sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam said,"Do not belittle any amount of sadaqah (charity). Safeguard yourselves from the Fire,even with half a date."Observing the people's slow response,the Prophet's face showed signs of anger. But then, one man from the Ansar came with a parcel full (of money) of silver and gold, which he could hardly hold in his palm. He handed it to Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam,while he was still on the minbar,and said,

"O Allaah's Messenger!
Take this in Allaah's way." He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam took it. Abu Bakr rahimahullaah then stood and gave something. Then 'Umar rahimahullaah gave something.Then the rest of the Muhajiroon and Ansaar gave. Thus people followed each other in giving charity:

This would give a dinar,this a dirham, his such and this such -until there were two piles of food and clothes; and the face of
Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam lighted up with a reddish-golden colour. So he said: "He who initiates in Islaam a good way gets his reward for it,as well as rewards similar to those who follow him into it,without reducing any of their rewards.And he who initiates in Islaam an evil way gets his burden for it, as well as burdens similar to those who follow him into it,without reducing any of their burdens." He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam then recited: "We record that which they have done, as well as their traces - and We have enumerated everything in a clear book." (36:12).

And he sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam divided what was collected among them (the poor
people from Mudar). (Muslim, Ahmad and others, Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 224-226).

From the above discussion,we can conclude that:
1. A person's deeds are sealed by his death. Nothing that takes place after that can affect his records.
2. The exception to the above rule is that anything,good or bad,that takes place after a person's death,which he contributed to its occurrence in any manner during his lifetime,will appear in his records in proportion with his contribution to it.

Throughout history, man has been fascinated by all aspects of the unseen.He has especially attempted to explore and understand the phenomenon of the soul -that mysterious power which activates the human body.Many questions were asked,but only a few answers were available. During the lifetime of the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihe wa-sallam) the Jews of Medina sent their allies,the Makkan infidels, to the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihe wa-sallam) to ask about the soul. In reply to their questions, the following Qur'aanic verse was revealed:
They ask you [O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)] concerning the Ruh (Soul). Say: 'It is one of the things,the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given very little.

[Soorah Al-Israa (17) :85]

Because so little knowledge was available, most Muslim scholars considered any discussion concerning the soul to be 'taboo' and so this avenue of knowledge remained almost closed within scholastic circles. The most famous of the few work written on this subject was entitled "Kitab Al-Ruh" by Ibn Al-Qayyim.'
Contrary to his normal approach of scholarly research,guided by the Qur'aan and authentic Sunnah, in this book he relied heavily on weak and spurious reports attributed falsely to the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihe wa-sallam) by transmitters such as Ibn Abi Al Dunya and Abu Nu'aim. Later scholars argued that Ibn Al-Qayyim was too great a scholar to have written a book so largely based on fabricated narrations,and so concluded that he could not have been the author. Others argued that he must have written it before he met the great author and teacher,
Sheikh Ibn Taymiyya,who had a profound effect on him and shaped his later works,which were always based on the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah.

In my short and humble contribution to the subject of the Soul, I have endeavored to rely on authentic sources alone. Due to the nature of this topic,I seek Allah's forgiveness for any deviation from the truth on my part and I pray to the Almighty to accept this meager effort. And may Allah shower His blessings upon our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihe wa-sallam) and his progeny.

Muharem ibn Shaban ibn Fazli

Melbourne - Australia.

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